NRG-Z3 cables take a step further and use Perfect-Surface Copper (PSC), also in a 7-strand Semi-Solid Concentric conductor arrangement. The astonishingly smooth and pure Perfect-Surface processed conductors minimize distortion caused by grain boundaries and surface discontinuities which exist in any metal conductor. Direction-Controlled Conductors & Silver-Plated Shield Drains: All drawn metal has a non-symmetrical, and therefore directional, grain structure. AudioQuest controls the resulting RF impedance variation so that noise drains away from where it will cause distortion. The Silver-Plated shield drains efficiently remove RF noise from the line and neutral shields via the wall plug’s “ground” pin. As with the Storm Series AC cables, Z3 includes AudioQuest’s Ground Noise-Dissipation Technology. AC Ground wires oer protection from current-wiring faults, but they also act as antennas, picking up radio frequency (RF) noise, which bypasses component power supplies and is typically coupled directly into a system’s most sensitive audio or video circuits. Our Ground-Noise Dissipation System employs a common- mode phase-canceling array that yields unprecedented levels of noise dissipation and reduction across the widest bandwidth (range) of radio frequencies – dramatically lowering distortion in the attached electronics.